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相关术语 - 理解AKC犬种标准之前提

 
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注册时间: 2002-03-13
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帖子发表于: 2003-01-04 14:03    发表主题: 相关术语 - 理解AKC犬种标准之前提 引用并回复 1楼

Angulation - 角度
~~~~~~
* 身体各部位图解参照:
http://www.chinapet.net/bbs/download.php?id=813
http://www.chinapet.net/bbs/download.php?id=814

* 相关术语:
http://www.chinapet.net/bbs/download.php?id=129
1. Cranium (头盖骨)
2. Cheek bone (颊骨)
3. Sinus (额窦)
4. Orbit (眼眶)
5. Facial bones (面骨)
6. Lower jaw joint (下颌关节)
7. Teeth (牙)
8. Mandible (下颚骨)
9. Ear drum (耳鼓膜)
10. Scapula (肩胛骨)
11. Shoulder joint (肩关节)
12. Humerus (肱骨)
13. Elbow joint (前肘关节)
14. Phalanges (指骨)
15. Metacarpal bones (掌骨)
16. Carpal bones (腕骨)
17. Radius (橈骨)
18. Ulna (尺骨)
19. Sternum (胸骨)
20. Costal cartilages (肋緣)
21. Penis (阴茎)
22. Patella (膑骨)
23. Phalanges (指骨)
24. Metatarsus (蹠骨)
25. Tarsal bones (跗骨)
26. Tibia (胫骨)
27. Fibula (腓骨)
28. Femur (股骨)
29. Coccygeal vertebrae (尾椎)
30. Pelvic girdle (骨盆)
31. Lumbar vertebrae (腰椎)
32. Thoracic vertebrae (胸椎)
33. Cervical vertebrae (子宫颈椎)
34. Axis (第二颈椎)
35. Atlas (第一颈椎)
+++++++++++++++++++
According to Spira, angulation is probably one of the most frequently used (and often misused) terms among dog fanciers. Angulation refers to the angles formed by bones meeting at various joints (articulations), especially at the shoulder, stifle, and hock; the pastern and pelvic regions may also be involved.
按照Spira的说法, "角度(angulation)"或许是多数爱犬者经常使用(也经常被误用)的一个词.它是指骨头在各个"关节 - joints (articulations)"接合处形成的角度, 尤指"肩部(shoulder)", 后膝(stifle - 'staifl)及后肘关节(hock)的角度; 骹(pastern)与骨盆(pelvic)区域也会被包括在内.

In general the terms forequarters angulation and hindquarters angulation are used to describe the combined joint angles of these regions. A dog that exhibits the proper joint angles for its breed is said to be well angulated or well-turned. Variations in what is considered to be proper angulation occur between the breeds, though there is a commonality of what constitutes good angulation for most breeds if the individual dog is to move with ease and grace. If a dog's forequarters angulation generally matches his hindquarters angulation he will be said to be in balance even if both front and rear angles are less than the ideal for his breed. A dog that is in balance will usually move better and have greater stamina than a dog with greater angulation, front or rear, that is not balanced. There is, by no means, common agreement on precisely how the various joint angles should be measured, and the specific points selected for these measurements can alter the results. Nor is there agreement on what degree of angulation constitutes the ideal standard for the generic dog, that is, the dog that will move most fluidly, with speed and stamina.
一般地说, "前躯(forequarters)角度"和"后躯(hindquarters)角度"的说法是用来描述这些区域相互结合在一起的各个角度. 能展示其犬种关节角度适当的狗可以说它是"恰如其分的角度 - (well angulated or well-turned)". 对大多犬种, 尽管有一形成良好角度的通则, 判定那只狗的运动是否自如优雅, 角度的适当与否在不同犬种之间还是各有变化.如果一只狗的前躯角度在总体上与其后躯角度相得益彰, 即使它的前后躯角度比其犬种理想角度少些~~这只狗达到了所谓"平衡 - (in balance)". 一只整体平衡的狗通常比拥有角度显著而前后躯不均衡的狗运到起来更好, 持久性更强. 无论如何, 对于各种关节角度如何精确测量, 如何选择具体测量位置都能产生不同的结果, 这是共识. 对某类犬角度度数多少去形成其理想中的标准还没有什么协议来认同, 也就是说狗在运动时它的耐力与速度使其运动更加流畅.

(下面段落不再做全文翻译~~)
In particular, the so-called shoulder layback angle measured along the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade) from the vertical is often considered ideal at 45 degrees (Spira1, Lyon2).
(summary: 肩膀后置角的测量~~Spiral的观点)

This is hotly disputed by Elliott3, who considers the 45degree angle to be extreme and notes that such an angle would bring the lower end of the scapula so far forward as to lose the support of the chest wall. Elliott prefers an angle more like 60 degrees as expressing the normal ideal for most breeds.
(summary: 肩膀后置角的测量~~Elliott的不同观点)

A common method for evaluating the slant of the bones in the forequarters is to take a line from the uppermost edge of the scapula to the frontmost prominence of the humerus (the point of shoulder), then take another line from there to the elbow. As a general rule, the distance between these points of reference should look or feel about equal, and if the front is balanced the elbow will be set approximately on a line dropped from the rearmost angle of the scapula.
(summary: 比较普遍的前躯角度测量方法)

Another way to measure this angle is to feel the ridge of the scapula, and to determine the angle between this ridge and the slant of the humerus (measured from its upper center to its lowest end (not the elbow). These latter measurements differ from the first procedure and will give the impression of less shoulder layback and a greater angle between shoulder and humerus, but the findings are more realistic as to the actual bone placement and joint angulation. The nominal ideal for this angle is 90 degrees, however, most breeds will be found to measure closer to 105 degrees, and terrier breeds in particular will probably measure at more than 130 degrees. The angle the pastern makes with the vertical should be about 20 degrees in most breeds, a greater slope indicating weak pasterns (down in pasterns). Most standards suggest angles within the range of 90 to 110 degrees for the hindquarters angulation to bring it in line with the forequarters angulation.
... ...
The rear angle (the stifle joint angle) is measured along the longitudinal axes of the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia/fibula (lower thigh bones). In practice, most stifle angles vary from 110 to 130 degrees with the Chow Chow as the major variant at 150 degrees1. A reference to hindquarter angulation sometimes also includes the angle of the pelvis from the horizontal (the pelvic slope). Length and slope of the pelvic assembly can be approximated by taking a line from the forward edge of the pelvis (ilium) to the buttock (ischium). Pelvic slope and outline of the croup are not one and the same. While the outline of the croup and set-on of the tail may be influenced by the slant of the pelvis, the outline may be more affected by the arch, dip or straightness of the lumbar section of the spinal column. The angle between the lower thigh and the rear pastern (the hock joint) is also significant. The rear pastern should drop vertically, however, if the hock angle is too great (straight in hock), the rear pastern will slope backwards, and if the hock angle is too small (sickle hocks), it causes the dog to “stand under itself”.
(summary: ... ... 微笑

1 Spira, Harold R., Canine Terminology, Howell Book House, Inc., New York, 1982.
2 Lyon, McDowell, The Dog in Action, Howell Book House, Inc., New York, 1985.
3 Elliot, Rachel Page, The New Dogsteps, Howell Book House, Inc., New York, 1983.


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帖子发表于: 2003-01-04 14:43    发表主题: 理解AKC标准中的常用词汇 引用并回复 2楼

Angulation - The angles formed by a meeting of the bones; mainly the shoulder, upper arm, stifle and hock.

Back - The vertebrae between the withers and the loin.

Balance - The pleasing, harmonious, and well-proportioned blend of an animal's parts and features. A symmetrical appearance.

Cheeky - Cheeks prominently rounded; thick, protruding.

Chiseling - Clean-cut lines and contours about the head, particularly beneath the eyes.

Coupling - The part of the body between the ribs and the pelvis; the loin.

Coarse
- Too heavy or overdone with bone, lack of refinement; lacking in quality.

Crossing over - Unsound gait which starts with twisting elbows and ends with crisscrossing and toeing out. Also called "knitting and purling" and "weaving".

Croup - The muscular area just in front of and around the set-on of the tail. Rump.

Drive - A solid thrusting of the hindquarters, denoting sound locomotion.

East-West front - Incorrectly positioned pasterns that cause the feet to turn outwards.

Even bite - Meeting of front teeth at edges with no overlap of upper or lower teeth.

Ewe neck - The topline of the neck is concave rather than convex.

Foreface - That portion of the head from the stop forward. Muzzle.

Goose step - Accentuated lift of the forelimbs, with no bend of wrist.

Hock - The joint of the hind leg between the lower thigh and the rear pastern. The dogs true heel.

Hocks well let down - Hock joints close to the ground.

Layback - The angle of the shoulder blade as compared with the vertical.

Loaded shoulders - Shoulder blades shoved out from the body by overdevelopment of the muscles.

Loin - The lumbar area extending from the end of the ribcage to the start of the pelvis.

Moving straight - Balanced gait in which angle of inclination begins at the shoulder, or hip joint, and limbs remain relatively straight from these points to the pads of the feet, even as the legs flex or extend in reaching or thrusting.

Muzzle - The head in front of the eyes. Foreface.

Overshot bite - A bite in which the ukpper incisors (front teeth) protrude over the lower.

Pastern - Region of the foreleg between the carpus (wrist) and the digits.

Penciling - Black lines dividing the rust-red on the toes.

Reach (of front) - Length of forward stride by forelegs without wasted or excessive motion.

Roach back - A convex curvature of the back toward the loin.

Scissors bite - A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touch the inner side of the upper incisiors.

Shelly - A shallow, narrow body lacking the correct amount of bone.

Single tracking - All footprings falling on a single line of travel; incorrect in the Min Pin.

Snipy - A pointed, weak muzzle.

Squirrel tail - Carried up and curving forward.

Stifle - The joint of the hind leg where the upper and lower thighs meet. The dog's knee.

Stop - The setup up from muzzle to skull; indentation between the eyes where the nasal bone and skull meet.

Straight or steep shoulders - A more upright placement of shoulder blades than is preferred; as opposed to sloping or "well laid back".

Swayback - Back line that sags or is concave between the withers and the hipbones.

Terrier front - Straight front as found on Fox Terriers.

Topline - The dog's outline from just behind the withers to the tail set.

Tuckup - The underline of the abdomen as it sweeps upward toward the flank. Small waisted.

Undershot bite - A bite in which the lower incisors (front teeth) protrude over the upper.

Weedy - An insufficient amount of bone.
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